The iEvac® Fire/Smoke Hood has been tested by a variety of independent and government organizations and has exceeded the requirements for certification to the American National Standard.
|Overall protection factor||Test subjects performing standard OSHA exercises inside the fit test chamber at Edgewood||2,000||>90,000|
|Protection factor inside the hood but outside the nose cup||Test subjects performing standard OSHA exercises inside the fit test chamber at Edgewood||150||>8,000|
|Radiant heat||Within 9.5 inches (240 mm) of heating panel between 980 and 1700°F (527 and 927°C)||15 secs repeated||pass|
|Flammability||9.8 inches (250 mm) away from a burner flame of 1475°F (800°C)||One rotation||pass|
|Molten drip||Molten polypropylene rod drip||Each location||pass|
|Inhalation temperature||CO at 77°F (25°C) and 87%RH||15 mins||pass|
|Fogging||Read eye chart from 20 feet (6.1 meters) at the 20/100 line||5 mins||pass|
|Field of vision||Apertometer headform||viewing||pass|
|Light transmission||Haze of vision area||left and right||pass|
|Temperature variation||32°F (0°C) followed by 158°F (70°C)||24 hours each||pass|
|Pressure variation||Ambient to 4.4 psi (300 mbar) below||1,000 cycles||pass|
|Vibration||0.75 inches (19 mm) at 100 rpm||10,000 cycles||pass|
|Corrosion||Salt spray at 95°F (35°C) then 72°F (22°C ) at 50% RH||48 hours each||pass|
|Puncture and tear||3.5 oz (100 grams) striker dropped from 4 inches (100 mm)||Ready to use||pass|
|Water leakage||Immerse in water at 160°F (70°C) to depth of 24 inches||5 mins||pass|
|Speed of donning||Remove from pack and wear properly||Less than 30 secs||< 30 secs||pass|
|Total inward leakage||Test subjects performing standard exercises||2.5 mins||< 2%||<0.01%|
|Ocular leakage||Test subjects performing standard exercises||2.5 mins||< 20%||<0.1%|
|Carbon dioxide build-up||Breathing machine||25 cycles per min||< 2.5%||< 1.7%|
|Breathing resistance||Probed headform with breathing machine||30 cycles||-3.2 in (-81.5 mm) +1.2 in (+30.6 mm)||pass|
|Soot particulate||Inhalation breathing resistance with 200 mg/m3 soot||5 mins||< 8 in (< 204 mm)||pass|
|Soot particulate||Exhalation breathing resistance with 200 mg/m3 soot||5 mins||< 6 in (< 153 mm)||pass|
|Carbon monoxide||CO||Hazardous combustion by-product||3,000||15 mins||> 45 mins|
|Carbon monoxide||CO||Hazardous combustion by-product||5,000||15 mins||> 46 mins|
|Hydrogen cyanide||HCN||Hazardous combustion by-product||400||15 mins||> 90 mins|
|Hydrogen chloride||HCl||Acid gas toxic industrial chemical||1,000||15 mins||> 70 mins|
|Sulfur dioxide||SO2||Acid gas toxic industrial chemical||100||15 mins||> 70 mins|
|Cyclohexane||C6H12||Organic vapor toxic industrial chemical||500||15 mins||> 41 mins|
|Acrolein||C3H4O||Organic vapor toxic industrial chemical||100||15 mins||> 65 mins|
|Dioctyl phthalate||DOP||Particulate aerosol 0.185 micron||200 mg/m3||>95%||> 99.996%|
|Carbon monoxide||CO||Hazardous combustion by-product||10,000||15 mins||> 30 mins|
|Dioctyl phthalate||DOP||HEPA filtration test for particulates and aerosols||200 mg/m3||> 99.97%||> 99.996%|
|Ammonia||NH3||Toxic industrial gas||1,250||15 mins||> 60 mins|
|Formaldehyde||HCHO||Toxic industrial gas||250||15 mins||> 60 mins|
|Phosgene||COCl2||Toxic industrial gas||125||15 mins||> 60 mins|
|Phosphine||PH3||Toxic industrial gas||150||15 mins||> 60 mins|
|Chlorine||Cl2||Toxic industrial gas||200||15 mins||> 60 mins|
|DMMP||DMMP||Simulant for sarin nerve gas||1,000||15 mins||> 60 mins|
|Tear Gas||CS||tear gas||3||>> 8 hours||> 8 hours|
|Tear Gas||CN||tear gas||16||>> 8 hours||> 8 hours|
|Hydrogen sulfide||H2S||Acid gas toxic industrial chemical||1,000||15 mins||> 600 mins|
|Hydrogen sulfide||H2S||Acid gas toxic industrial chemical||5,000||15 mins||> 85 mins|
|Hydrogen sulfide||H2S||Acid gas toxic industrial chemical||10,000||15 mins||> 40 mins|
|Hydrogen sulfide||H2S||Acid gas toxic industrial chemical||20,000||15 mins||> 20 mins|
Performance and Protection Capability Tests beyond the Requirements of American Standard
The iEvac® has a recorded Total Inward Leakage of less than 0.01%. This characteristic was measured by the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command – Edgewood Chemical Biological Center in Aberdeen, Maryland. For reference, the requirement for certification to the ASTM E2952-14 standard is that the total inward leakage shall not exceed 2%. Additionally, the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command – Edgewood Chemical Biological Center in Aberdeen, Marylandmeasured and recorded the ocular leakage of the iEvac® Hood as less than 0.01%. The ocular leakage is the exposure to contamination that a wearer will experience due to leakage through the neck dam to the interior of the hood, but measured outside the nose cup. For reference, the requirement for certification to the ASTM E2952-14 standard is that the ocular leakage shall not exceed 20%.
The iEvac® filters are a proprietary blend of materials specifically formulated to be effective against a wide range of gases and particulate aerosols. (Tests against particulate aerosols are described below.) Probably the two most dangerous gases encountered during an emergency escape from a fire are carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. These special filters will provide protection against both these gases. They are designed to provide protection against these life-threatening products of combustion and also against other toxic industrial gases and terrorist gases.
iEvac ® filters have been independently tested against gases. Among the tests are the following:
carbon monoxide – a very toxic by-product of combustion tested at 3,000 ppm,5,000 ppm, and 10,000 ppm
hydrogen cyanide – a very toxic by-product of combustion tested at 400 ppm
sulfur dioxide – a benchmark acid gas tested at 100 ppm
acrolein – a benchmark organic vapor tested at 100 ppm
cyclohexane – a benchmark hydrocarbon gas tested at 500 ppm
hydrogen chloride – a benchmark acid gas tested at 1,000 ppm
ammonia – benchmark toxic industrial gas tested at 1,250 ppm
chlorine – benchmark toxic industrial gas tested at 200 ppm
phosgene – benchmark toxic industrial gas tested at 125 ppm
formaldehyde – a benchmark toxic industrial gas tested at 250 ppm
phosphine – a benchmark toxic industrial gas tested at 150 ppm
DMMP – a simulant for Sarin nerve gas tested at 1,000 ppm
hydrogen sulfide – a benchmark toxic industrial gas tested at 1,000 ppm, 5,000 ppm, 10,000 ppm, and 20,000 ppm
tear Gas (CN) – an irritant toxic chemical tested at 16 ppm at low, standard and high humidity for at least eight hours, both as received and following preconditioning.
tear Gas (CS) – an irritant toxic chemical tested at 3 ppm at low, standard and high humidity for at least eight hours, both as received and following preconditioning.
Carbon dioxide build-up – A special consideration is build-up of carbon dioxide inside the hood. We exhale carbon dioxide naturally, and it is important to make sure that this gas does not build up inside the hood. iEvac ® is tested to make sure that the levels inside the hood are safe for the duration of an escape.
The iEvac® filters are a proprietary blend of materials specifically formulated to be effective against a wide range of particulate aerosols and gases. (Tests against gases are described above.)
The iEvac particulate aerosol filtering element is rated as a P100 with a filtering efficiency of at least 99.97% will provide respiratory protection against all particulate aerosols.
What are aerosols? Understood colloquially, the word ‘aerosol’ usually refers to an aerosol spray can or the spray that comes out of such a can. However, a particulate aerosol is not just a spray: an aerosol is a suspension of airborne particles, whether liquid droplets or solids.
Dust is an aerosol formed by mechanical breaking down of bulk material into small airborne particles that are solid and irregular in shape. Fume is an aerosol of solid particles formed by condensation of vapors formed at elevated temperatures. Smoke is an aerosol formed by condensation of combustion products, generally of organic materials. Mist is an aerosol formed by mechanical shearing of a bulk liquid ; for example, by atomization, nebulization, bubbling, or spraying. Fog is an aerosol formed by condensation of water vapor on atmospheric nuclei at high relative humidity. Smog is a popular term for a pollution aerosol derived from a combination of smoke and fog.
Many properties of particulate aerosols, other than their size, can affect the environment and health. These properties include the particle shape, the mass concentration, the particle volume and its velocity.
A bioaerosol is a particulate aerosol that contains living organisms or was released from living organisms. They include microorganisms and fragments, virus particles, bacteria, fungal spores and plant pollen, and particulate waste from all varieties of living things. Published studies have shown no significant difference in the filtration of biological aerosols and non-biological aerosols with similar physical properties. Studies have confirmed that non-biological particles of similar aerodynamic diameter can be used for assessing the performance of respirators against biological aerosols. The P100 material used in the iEvac to filter all types of particulate aerosols is the same grade of material used in biological safety cabinets used to work safely with materials requiring a defined biosafety level.
In keeping with its design excellence, the iEvac® filters contain the best possible particle filter, a high efficiency particulate air HEPA filter. This is the same material used in military gas masks to provide protection against biohazards. The HEPA filter element used in iEvac® has been tested and has removed 99.996% of particles that are 0.2 micrometers in size. It is this ability of the filters to remove sub-micrometer particulates that keeps out the small particulate aerosol that may be present in aerosols such as smoke. NIOSH has a number of categories for particulate aerosol filters. The most demanding category is P100. Such filters are intended for the removal of any particulate aerosols including oil-based liquid particulates and for use for more than a single shift. The certification program includes tests performed by NIOSH to prove that the P100 filters have a minimum efficiency of 99.97 percent when tested against dioctyl phthalate (DOP) or equivalent liquid with a particle size of 0.185 micrometers.
The filters will also remove very heavy particles such as soot. Testing is performed to ensure that the filters will remove the soot from the air and still not clog the filters so that it is too difficult to breathe.
The iEvac® filters are very protective and also designed for easy breathing. This is important in all applications but is particularly necessary in emergency situations when the wearer may be inclined to panic. The iEvac® is tested for both inhalation and exhalation resistance.
Many physical hazards may be encountered during an emergency such as when escaping from a fire. There will be flames, heat, hot material dripping, and other hazards. Vision will be very important, as will the need for the packaging to stand up to vibration and puncture threats from sharp objects.
It is important to establish that the air that comes through the filters does not become overheated by the filtration process . This is established by passing 5000 ppm carbon monoxide at a temperature of 77°F (25°C) and checking for an increase in air temperature.
Tests for heat and flame resistance. During theses tests components will not have an afterflame longer than 5 seconds. No component will drip, melt or develop a visible hole or be damaged so that eyes or lungs are exposed to smoke. These tests involve a temperature of 1475°F (800°C).
In this test, a flaming drip from an ignited polypropylene rod is allowed to drop onto the hood. No after flame lasts longer than 5 seconds.
The hood is exposed to a radiant heat panel comprising two quartz lamps with a surface temperature between 980°F (527°C) and 1700°F (927°C) determined from a spectral emittance curve. The hood is located 9.5 inches away from the radiant heat panel and exposed for 15 seconds. The requirement is that the hood is not damaged in a way that exposes eyes or lungs to gas or smoke and that the temperature at the top of the head and inside the eyepiece shall not exceed 158°F (70°C). The hood passed.
The hood can be unpackaged and put on in less than 30 seconds
Light transmission, haze and field of vision are all tested to make sure that the iEvac® viewing area is big enough and durable enough.
A test is conducted to ensure that a person can clearly read a standard eye chart while wearing the iEvac® hood.
The iEvac® hood is exposed to a corrosive salt spray, and tested afterwards
This test involves vibrating the iEvac® packaging for 10,000 cycles.
The iEvac® package is raked by a sharp pointed heavy striker. The packaging does not puncture, rip or tear
The iEvac® package is immersed in water heated to a temperature of 160°F (70°C) to a depth of 24 inches (600 mm) and must not leak.
The packaged hood is exposed to a temperature of 32°F (0°C) for 24 hours then exposed to 180°F (70°C) for 24 hours. Then the hood is unpacked and tested for performance.
The packaged iEvac® hood is exposed to 100 cycles of differential pressure. Each cycle is 60 seconds at ambient, 20 seconds going from ambient to 300 mbar below, 60 seconds at 300 mbar below and 20 seconds back to ambient. Then the hood is unpacked and tested for performance.
We are continuing to develop more test data for the iEvac® and we will add these to our web site as they become available. Ask for test data and details of test methods
Of course, no filter and no hood can provide 100% protection, so be sure to follow the instructions in the User Manual.